Schengen Area and Cooperation, EUROPA, europa.eu/legislation_summaries/justice_free dom_security/free_movement_of_persons_asylum_immigration/l33020_en.htm (as of 3 August 2009). In the 1850s, Chinese workers emigrated to the United States, first to work in gold mines, but also to work in agricultural and factory jobs, particularly in the garment industry. Chinese immigrants were particularly instrumental in building railroads in the American West, and when Chinese workers succeeded in the United States, some of them became entrepreneurs themselves. As the number of Chinese workers increased, so did the strength of anti-China sentiment among other workers in the U.S. economy. This eventually led to legislation to limit the future immigration of Chinese workers to the United States and threatened to deny diplomatic relations between the United States and China. In the 1960s, Germany recruited and welcomed large numbers of foreign workers to increase German industrial production. At that time, it was generally assumed that the “guest workers” admitted at that time would eventually leave.  Instead, these workers, mostly Turks, stayed in Germany and brought their families with them, so that today about ten percent of the German population is of migratory origin.  Since 1973, Germany has pursued an immigration policy that restricts immigration to skilled or highly skilled workers and allows unskilled workers only for a short period of time, thus preventing them from becoming permanent or bringing their families with them.
 The excluded Chinese did not accept passive unfair treatment, but used all sorts of tools to challenge or circumvent the laws. One of those instruments was the American judicial system. Dethough they came from a country with no contentious tradition, Chinese immigrants quickly learned to use the courts as a place to fight for their rights and won numerous cases in which anti-China regulations were declared unconstitutional by state or federal courts. They were supported in their litigation by Frederick Bee, a Californian entrepreneur and lawyer who was one of the leading American defenders of the civil rights of Chinese immigrants, representing many of them in court from 1882 to 1892. They also protested racial discrimination in other places, such as the media and petitions. The Chinese Exclusion Act was passed by Congress and passed by the Pres. Chester A. Arthur. It lasted 10 years and was extended by 10 years by the Geary Act of 1892, which also required people of Chinese descent to carry identity certificates or expect to be deported.
Subsequent measures restricted the Chinese through a number of other restrictions, such as. B restrict their access to bonds and restrict admission only to those who were teachers, students, diplomats and tourists. Congress almost completely closed the door on Chinese immigrants by extending China`s exclusion law for an additional 10 years in 1902 and making the extension indefinite in 1904. Chinese Exclusion Act, formerly Immigration Act of 1882, a U.S. federal law that was the first and only major federal law to explicitly suspend immigration for a particular nationality. The Basic Exclusion Law prohibited Chinese workers – defined as “skilled and unskilled workers and Chinese workers employed in mines” – from entering the country. Subsequent changes to the law prevented Chinese workers who had left the United States from returning. The passage of the law was the result of years of racial enmity and anti-immigrant agitation by white Americans, set a precedent for subsequent restrictions on immigration of other nationalities, and we began a new era in which the United States moved from a country that welcomed almost all immigrants to a guardian country.  H. Hartnell, Citizenship and Migration in the European Union and Germany, 24 Berkeley J. . .