Do you remember China`s inclusion in the World Trade Organization in 2001? Presidents Clinton and Bush, along with many political leaders, predicted that this would improve the trade balance between the United States and China and encourage China to abandon communism for free-market capitalism, which would benefit both Americas. Recommendation: The EU should stop insisting on the inclusion in all trade agreements with ACP countries of new issues such as investment, competition policy and public procurement, as well as more WTO provisions on services and intellectual property rights. If countries want to include one of the trade-related themes, they should follow an explicit global development perspective, without reducing the policy options needed for ACP countries. In November, Chinese exports did not grow as fast as they have been for nearly three years, as official figures on Monday showed, as increased demand in the most important markets before the holiday season also helped the country reach a record trade surplus. Overall, the inclusion of literature on EU initiatives for `dialogue` and `participation` shows that civil society actors and representatives of African businesses are being denied a real chance to have a real impact on EU trade and aid policies. Nevertheless, their presence at EU-organised dialogue meetings plays an important role in helping the Commission present its trade agenda as a legitimisation of development standards. COMBAT AYLEAL TRADE: President Trump maintains his promise to fight for fair and reciprocal trade. Xi`s visit sparked fears that China could take advantage of its dominance in rare earth production, a group of 17 chemical elements estimated for their use in consumer electronics and military equipment, in the escalating trade war, while no supply restrictions have been announced so far. Examining the impact of the recent increase in preferential trade agreements on social inclusion, equality and respect for human rights Dumping is an unfair trade practice in which products are exported at prices below their production costs. It is interesting to note, however, that the European Commission has sought to respond to criticism of EPAs and their effects by involving local civil society and business leaders on the eve of the implementation of free trade agreements.
Through closer cooperation with African NGOs and private sector activists in civil society dialogues, the EU says it hears local views on the intersections between EPAs and sustainable development (Orbie, et al., 2017). This is in addition to the EU`s aid-for-trade pledges – funds that are supposed to help struggling African sectors improve their current level of productivity and compete more equitably with Producers in Member States in a level playing field.